Chartered Accountants

Chartered accountants were the first accountants to form a professional accounting body, initially established in Scotland in 1854. The Edinburgh Society of Accountants (1854), the Glasgow Institute of Accountants and Actuaries (1854) and the Aberdeen Society of Accountants (1867) were each granted a royal charter almost from their inception. The title is an internationally recognised […]

Setting Up an Holding Company

Holding companies are formed to organize and manage a group of smaller companies. If you are a business owner of investor, you may consider forming a holding company to protect your business assets or get a more favorable tax rate. Assess your business needs. A holding company is an incorporated business that holds investments in […]

Statement of profit and loss

The financial statements are the end products of accounting process.They are prepared following the consistent accounting concepts, principles, procedures and also the legal environment in which the business organizations operate. These statements are the outcome of the summarizing process of accounting and are, therefore, the sources of information on the basis of which conclusions are […]

Types Of Auditing

Audit is an art of systematic and independence review and investigation on Financial Statements, Management Account, Management Reports, Accounting Records, Operational Report, Revenues Report, and Expenses Report etc. The result of review and investigation will be reported to shareholders of the entity. Audit reports sometime submit to others stakeholders like government, bank, creditors or public. […]

Working capital management

Working capital management is the management of current liabilities and current assets. In order to operate and generate cash flow to meet the need for short-term obligations and daily operational expense, the proper management of working capital is required. Working Capital: There are two concepts of working capital viz .quantitative and qualitative. Some people also […]

Problems Of Unemployment

Unemployment or joblessness is the situation of actively looking for employment but not being currently employed. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force. During periods of recession, an economy […]